To establish a bond between the female and male, sharing the care of the offspring of the child, strongly advocating belonging to the region, in other words, ownership. Aside from alternative forms of relations, we are talking about the social organization that has dominated and continues to dominate the human society throughout history, namely monogamy. Since humanoid species are already us, Homo sapiens, there are no Homo species in which different patterns of behavior can prevail. But in a wider group, including humans, for example, mammals, and even a little further backwards, the variety is much higher in vertebrates. Some of the birds are monogamous, some not. Or striking fish, frogs, mouse species çarpıcı A striking research led by researchers at the University of Texas’s Integrated Biology department magnified the common ground, monogamy, and neuromolecular mechanisms on which these species seem to be distant from millions of years. And he came to a very striking conclusion: No matter how big the difference between vertebrate species, the same pattern of gene regulation repeats itself when it comes to the adoption of monogamy as a pattern of behavior, in other words, evolution uses a universal formula for the production of monogamy.
Two frog species used in the study. Mothers in polygonal Oophaga pumilio (left) and fathers in monogamous Ranitomeya imitators (right) carry out the task of carrying tadpoles, which are performed under the care of the offspring. Reference: Yusan Yan and James Tumulty.
One of the most common mistakes when thinking about evolution, whether physical features or behavioral patterns, is to think that traits are transferred from one type to another on a linear line resembling progress and some improvements are made in this transfer process. However, many features occur in different species repeatedly and independently. Monogamy, an extremely complex and layered behavior, is not exempt from this rule. It is evident that it occurs independently in various animal species; This is precisely because of the fact that different species within the same group are monogamous and some polygamy (for example, the field mouse used in this study is monogamous, the meadow mouse is polygamous). Based on this fact, the architects of the study published in the January 2019 issue of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) identified five pairs of animals, one monogamous and the other polygamy, although they were closely related to understand the transition between monogamy and polygamy. However, they selected each of the 5 groups from groups that were distant from each other in terms of kinship, corresponding to the evolutionary different emergence periods of monogamy. Thus, a mixture of 2 mice, 2 frogs, 2 birds, 2 fish and 2 mammal species emerged. In the experimental phase, as compared to the general level, a more crucial data was examined, rather than going through comparisons between the levels of certain molecules such as DNAs or hormones of candidate genes thought to be effective in monogamy: a transcriptome, ie a table of gene expression showing which amounts of these genes were converted to protein. . It is a very decisive mechanism, from the differences between tissues to where the genes are expressed, when and in what amounts, to the differences in deep pattern of behavior. As a matter of fact, brain tissues taken from 10 different types of male individuals used in the experiment confirmed this. Whether it’s fish (here Xenotilapia spilotera), or its closest common ancestor, the 450-million-mile field mouse (here Microtus pennsylvanicus), a set of 24 amplitudes responsible for neural development, intercellular communication, synaptic activity, learning and memory, cognitive functions compared to the species. Researchers say that this form of regulation that makes the brain more flexible and the ability to remember more enables men to recognize their spouses and perceive their presence as a reward. This is a kind of universal and evolutionary formula for monogamy. A small reminder for those who want to make an assessment: At least in the biological sense, monogamy does not mean staying with the same partner for life, a single offspring season is enough!