Although there is widespread knowledge that living things have existed somewhere in the blue planet since Earth has existed, it is actually a tidal process that takes millions of years to evolve and reach the complexity of life in the evolution of our planet.
What is a biosphere? How did it develop and develop?
It is one of the most important living systems of the earth. Looking at the origin of the name, we can call it the sphere of life or sphere of life. Generally speaking, all the environments in which life lives are the biosphere of our planet. Therefore, many different environments, in other words the ecosystem, are located within the biosphere. Ecosystems are large habitats where organic and inorganic systems are intertwined. Terrestrial (terrestrial) ecosystems, aquatic (aquatic) ecosystems, atmospheric ecosystems, such as borders are extremely wide and in a place where the boundaries of each other, living and living with each other and different aspects of the environment that accept the boundary. For example, oceans are gigantic ecosystems with undefined borders, which are subdivided into many subcategories. Likewise, desert areas, one of the largest terrestrial ecosystems, are.
World biosphere did not form immediately. We can say that the biosphere of the planet has started to form, especially after the atmosphere is fully formed, that is, when the O2 concentration reaches a density similar to that of today’s atmosphere. This is about 2.5 billion years ago. However, this important point should not be forgotten. It is about 400 million years ago that the plants abandoned the aquatic environments, adhered to the rocks and formed the first paleo-flora (geological old plant community) of the planet with similar lichen-like types. The first soil formations were also at that time. In our opinion, the first true biosphere must have formed at the beginning of the Devon Period.
As the ground evolves, the paleo-ecosystems in the paleo-biosphere (the old biosphere in the geological sense) work as the gears of the evolutionary wheel, and they change over time. Climate change and plate movements are the main events that cause these changes.
Paleo-ecosystems in geological time have the same characteristics as today’s ecosystems. The only evidence of ecosystems millions of years ago are fossils of living things of that time. We can summarize this with two very good examples from our country. In and around Küçükçekmece, there are fossilized remains of animals that lived in the Late Miocene Period 10-8 million years ago. When we compare these remains with the living environments of living things today, that is, their ecosystems; We understand that the geography, including Küçükçekmece, is a savannah environment in the aforementioned time. Because, in the fossil record, there are living things such as rhino, giraffe and lion living in savannah environments. These records show that the savanna environment was dominant in Thrace between 10-8 million years. Again, the presence of hard coal in Zonguldak is a fossilized remnant of huge Carboniferous plants in the swamps of a huge lake 300 million years ago. We can say that the plant ecosystem that constitutes this hard coal is similar to the terrestrial ecosystem that includes plant diversity in today’s rain forests.
There are two important environments in the biosphere. One of these is biomes. Tundra, desert, savanna, rainforest, cold climate forests, grasslands are biomes. Biomes are similar to ecosystems; climatic and geographic, plant community, animal community and ecological environments where the content of soil organisms show similar characteristics. The ecosystem is much smaller than the biome. Ecosystems are the living environment where biological and physical components coexist and interact with each other.
Biomes (*) are determined by the following basic factors. For example, general varieties of plant communities, such as shrubs, pastures, trees, or leaf types of trees, such as succulent or coniferous, and of course the most important climatic types. Biomes cannot be classified based on their genetic, taxonomic and historical background.
Now let’s take a look at ecosystems. We know that these habitats contain much narrower, confined areas than biomes. Coral reefs in the oceans, for example, are an important ecosystem in marine biomes. To give a few examples of geological times, Devon reefs, Jurassic reefs, and even the Eocene Karaburun reefs in the immediate vicinity of Istanbul are very good examples of geological reef ecosystems. In fact, the word biome is not used much in terminology, instead the ecosystem is a much better understood term.
In the evolution of the sphere of life, also known as the biosphere, many geological events have been effective and the biosphere has undergone major changes from time to time. In fact, life has come to a point of complete destruction. For example, at the end of the Mesozoic, 65 million years ago, the meteors that hit the planet had destroyed almost all the biosphere, and all the ecosystems and their representatives, the living world, have come to the point of total destruction. The most affected by this situation were reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems, and dinosaurs were completely withdrawn from world life.
The evolution of the biosphere is controlled by multicomponent factors. One of the factors that affect its development and change is the climate and its changes, as mentioned earlier. In the history of the planet, climate change is too much to count. These changes have led to a series of events affecting the change of living systems and the evolution of living organisms. The evolution of horses is a good example of this.
We know that the ancestors of horses were mammal animals of cat-dog size during the Eocene, bouncing in the bushes, hopping, jumping and feeding on the leaves of the bushes. We also know that horses developed in such environments in North America. They lived in such environments until about 23 million years ago. When, in North America, the climate changed, the bushes disappeared, grassy, flat areas took their place; that’s when the horses became the types running and feeding on the plains. When climate change in the history of the planet transforms forests into pastures; horses living in the wooded area had to comply with this ecosystem or biome change. This was nothing more than the reflection of climate change caused by changes in the atmosphere, one of the main components of the world biosphere. This change forced horses to adapt to grassland or tundra instead of forests. Horses have taken their present form as a result of these changes being reflected in their morphology.
All the systems on our planet interact with each other. This is a cycle and it should be known that there will be major problems when interrupted. For example, when too much CO2 is released into the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect increases and the world overheats. It is clear that the changes caused by this warming to melt the glaciers in the poles will cause catastrophes globally.
When we examine the history of the earth, we see that such crises affect world life in many processes with and without human. For example, as in glacial times.
Climate and geographically determined living environment. It is used in the same sense as the ecosystem.